Professor Pattanayak has published extensively in the areas of ecosystem services, forests conservation, environmental health, and household energy with over 100 peer-reviewed publications and has been an advisor on 79 student projects. He has been the Principal Investigator or co-Investigator on a number of research grants, including grants from the U.S. Agency for International Development and the Swedish International Cooperation Agency, as well as a number of grants from various Duke University Initiatives.
In addition to his position at Duke University, he has held visiting positions at a number of major international institutions, including the Center for International Forestry and UC Berkeley. Most recently he was selected to be a resident in the Rockefeller Foundations Bellagio program. He is an editor for a number of influential publications (e.g. Conservation Letters, Environment and Development Economics and Forest Science).