Prof. Carcaillet became a Professor at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes (EPHE) in 2001 in the Department of Life and Earth Sciences. He was Director of the Center for Bio-Archaeology and Ecology (CNRS, EPHE & University of Montpellier) from 2003 to 2010. In 2007, he founded the Paleoenvironments and Chronoecology lab (EPHE).
Prof. Carcaillet is currently a researcher at the Lab for Ecology of Natural and Anthropic Hydrosystems at the University of Lyon, France. He is working on the influences of climate and social processes on the pattern of plant communities or ecosystems in space and time. His main research focuses on the palaeoecology of fire in relation to climatic changes and plant diversity dynamics in boreal, mountain and Mediterranean areas. He also studies the interactions between snow avalanches or insect diseases with socio-ecological systems.