Worldwide there are over 1.6 million hip fractures annually among people aged 60 years and over, and as the number and mean age of the populations continue to increase, the number of hip fractures is likely to increase as well. Epidemiologically, a substantial additional concern is that, besides the demographic change in populations, the age-standardized incidence (i.e., the average individual risk) of fracture is rising in many populations and countries. The treatment costs of fall-related injuries such as hip fracture in Canada are currently estimated 650 million dollars but are predicted to exceed 2.4 billion dollars in 2041. Therefore, we propose to answer two research questions in order to better prevent hip fractures: 1) What are the currently unrecognized risks for hip fractures? 2) What novel interventions can better prevent hip fractures?