In the ancient Near East, writing was a collective, anonymous enterprise. Scribes regularly modified received traditions, updating them to suit new contexts. As such, ancient Near Eastern texts often reflect multiple and competing perspectives. In order to understand these works, it is crucial to disentangle the diverse perspectives lodged within them and then situate these voices in relation to one another. Essentially, we must reconstruct the conversation that is embedded in the text. This challenge is at the heart of Sara Milstein’s scholarship.
In Tracking the Master Scribe: Revision through Introduction in Biblical and Mesopotamian Literature (OUP, 2016; American Schools of Oriental Research Frank Moore Cross Award in 2017), Milstein focuses on one of the most prominent methods within the scribal repertoire, what she calls “revision through introduction.” With this technique, scribes recast their received material by adding something new to the front. Milstein demonstrates how the recognition of revision through introduction at work enables us to interpret these reworked texts at multiple phases in their development, not just the final ones.